Category Archives: rehabilitation

MARTIN KRIEG – A MAN OF GREAT VISION – NATIONAL BICYCLE GREENWAY


martin-krieg-3

Here is an interesting video mainly about hi wheel bikes, but it covers recumbents as well. Martin Krieg is quite a trooper. He has accomplished so much even though he has been quite physically challenged as a result of a very serious head injury in an auto accident and has had to overcome so much. Martin is very involved in trying to get the greenways of America connected together and people back to cycling.

I apologize for the video below being small in size. It must be some sort of glitch as it plays normal size on Vimeo’s website. I have no idea why it doesn’t here. You can click on the full screen option and watch it that way.

This next video features Martin at various points thruout it.

Unfortunately I have not figured out anyway to embed the next video into this blog posting so you will have to watch it on their website.

http://www.abc10.com/mb/news/local/davis/big-story-behind-the-big-wheel/346584864

Here he is on a Lightning P38 recumbent bicycle.

martin-krieg

HERE is an article about Martin which he wrote himself. HERE is another article about Martin. And HERE is another article.

martin-krieg-2

BOOM CHAIN TENSIONERS (CRANK ARM SHORTENERS UPDATE)


Note: I started out writing this article about an update on the subject of crank arms shorteners, but it more less evolved into another topic so I changed the title accordingly.

It has warmed up a bit recently and all the snow has melted. Between that and rain we have had recently the rivers have risen and flooded over their banks so that some parts of our local bike trails are flooded over and closed. Boo Hoo!! Never the less I have been able to ride my tadpole trike which I thoroughly enjoyed despite the nasty wind chill factor. In order to ride my trike I removed the crank arm shorteners I had installed on my wife’s recumbent bike I am using for rehab and exercise here at home. I installed the crank arm shorteners on my trike. (I was even able to move the pedals one hole further out so that means my new knee joints are improving.) What a difference! I really like them (Yes, both the crank arm shorteners and my new knee joints.) 🙂

crank-arm-shortener-on-my-tadpole-trike-3

However, there is one thing that I noticed using them on my trike that I didn’t notice on the bike. With the crank arm shorteners installed on my trike I need to readjust my boom … lengthen it … as I am not getting the leg extension I need with the pedals relocated. I have not done that yet, but I should. It probably will require adding some more chain. That is the main reason I haven’t tried moving the boom out yet. It is winter out there folks and I am not too crazy about working out in the cold to accomplish this task.

A rear derailleur is supposed to be able to handle about 2 inches of extra chain length as far as movement of the boom.  That equates to approximately one inch of boom adjustment. However that figure is based on the boom position at the shortest length the rear derailleur handles to the position of the boom at the longest length it can handle. If the boom is already positioned out quite a ways within that range than most of that 2 inches is already used up. If this is the case then additional chain would need to be added.

One nice option is to employ a Universal Boom Adjust Chain Tensioner designed for the boom of a tadpole trike.

crank-arm-shortener-on-tadpole-trike

They are not cheap ($155), but they do make it easy to move the boom in and out and automatically maintain the proper chain tension. They are especially nice to accommodate various riders of differing sizes. The chain can be made up long enough to move the boom out for a tall rider and when the boom is shortened for a shorter rider the chain tensioner automatically takes care of the extra chain the rear derailleur would not be able to handle. Obviously there is a lot of extra chain and hardware involved and it might appear a bit unsightly to many (myself included), but they do work. You definitely would not want to run it into a curb or such as it would likely be damaged. TerraCycle (not to be confused with TerraTrike) manufactures these for several different brands of trikes. They can be purchased from some trike dealers and trike manufacturers as well. Catrike sells it for $150, but it is $145 at most of the other sources I have seen including directly from TerraCycle. The Chain Gobbler fits Greenspeed trikes and sells for $149.

Here is a Utah Trikes video on the subject of these chain tensioners …

So this is a very handy and practical option available. Most definitely if you have various size riders riding the same trike this is the way to go. Adding and removing lengths of chain even if you use links which are supposedly quick and easy to remove is a real pain compared to this slick setup. So if you have $150 or so burning a hole in your pocket here is a place to unload that cash and make your life easier. It is always nicer to ride then to “wrench”. And it will even help you and others to …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

DARNED EITHER WAY


There is an old saying … “darned if I do, darned if I don’t” … and sometimes it just seems to apply. It speaks of a situation where one can’t win. The winter weather has improved some lately so I have been trying to take advantage of it and get outside for some exercise and needed therapy for my new knee joints. I went out walking Monday and ended up with my knees and lower back hurting for the rest of the day. Tuesday, despite the cold wind chill factor, I went out riding my trike which I thoroughly enjoyed, but the remainder of the day my knees were hurting. Today and tomorrow are supposed to be nicer weather than yesterday and I was looking forward to riding my trike some more. However, I decided not to venture out today so that I can give my knees a day off to recuperate. I am hopeful I will feel up to it tomorrow. After that the weather is supposed to change for the worse with snow and wind. It seems like I can’t win for losing in all of this. Oh well, I will survive. April will eventually get here and by then my knees should be in better shape. Hopefully I can get out riding and walking some more before then. Every “body” (everybody) needs exercise. I am so thankful I have my trike available to ride and I am generally very healthy. This knee joint matter will improve. I have already come a very long way in a very short time so I am thankful for that as well. So much of our local trail system is closed at this time due to river flooding and/or construction/utility work so I am limited where I can ride or walk right now as far as trails are concerned. Hopefully by April things will be much different and I can get serious out there trying to burn up the pavement. I’ll see about that. I can dream about it. I am no spring chick so I may be foolin’ myself. But hey, I may be surprised. I will let you know. Ya’ll try to …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

YAHOO! THE CRANKARM SHORTENERS WORK GREAT


crankarm-shortener

Yes, I am talking about the crankarm shorteners again. They arrived in the mail today and I installed them on my wife’s recumbent bike I have set up on my indoor trainer out on the enclosed patio. I tried them out and WOW … what a difference! I really like them. I can position my feet normally on the pedals and pedal quite comfortably. My new freshly installed man made knee joints  are loving them. There is only one problem. It is just too darn cold out there even inside the enclosed patio. At least I didn’t have that nasty wind to contend with. And this is jut the start of winter. C’mon April! I chose to install them on my wife’s bike instead of my trike … for now that is … as I don’t intend to try riding my trike outdoors in this miserable weather. Anyway, I just wanted to post a quick note about the crankarm shorteners. They really work great and I highly recommend them. BTW, wouldn’t you just know it? The very same place I bought my crankarm shorteners from is now selling them for over $7 less than I paid for them. The price I paid was the lowest I could find at the time. Oh well, it is truly the story of my life. 🙂

HERE is an article I wrote previously about crankarm length.

Here is a video which explains the need and benefit of shorter crankarms.

CRANKARM SHORTENERS REVISITED


crank-shorteners

For a very long time now I have wanted to try using crankarms shorteners as they are supposed to help those who have knee joint issues. And it is said that short people should use shorter crankarms. I qualify on both. At my rehab physical therapy sessions I am going thru for knee joint replacement their stationary recumbent exercise bike has the crankarms adjusted to their minimum setting and that setting works great for me. I recently ordered a set of crankarm shorteners so I can pedal normally. With my 165 mm crankarms that came on my trike I have to place the heels of my feet on the pedals in order to pedal it. I tried pedaling my wife’s recumbent bike which I have set up on an indoor trainer out on the enclosed patio at the back of the house, but I couldn’t even pedal it with my heels on the pedals. I think it has 175 mm crankarms. I just am not “there” yet in my recovery. At rehab I can pedal with my feet positioned normally on the pedals. I even cranked it up to 100 rpm cadence a couple of times. So the shorter crankarms really do make a difference. I am really looking forward to having them on my trike.

Here is a video which explains the need and benefit of shorter crankarms.

What I am not looking forward to is winter weather for the next few months. I don’t know how much I will be getting out riding thru the winter. If it gets nasty enough I will no doubt bring my trike back inside the house for the third winter in a row and set it up on the indoor trainer in the living room in front of the large screen TV which is also used as a computer monitor. With access to the internet I can find all sorts of stuff to watch on that big screen in front of me including riding on bike trails. It is almost like being there except I can’t lean in the turns. 🙂

Yep, a set of these just might be your ticket as well.

short-crankarms-2

Shortens cranks by 24, 41, 59 and 76mm. I am pretty certain that I will be using the 59 mm position (next to the shortest) as that will give me about 106 mm crankarms which is close to the setting of the crankarms on the stationary recumbent exercise bike I am pedaling at rehab. The really neat thing about using these is that if and as one improves the pedals can be moved further out. I doubt if I would ever go back all the way to 165 mm though.

HERE is an article I wrote previously about crankarm length.

HERE is the best price I have found on them. I am quite certain that they are going to help me to …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

DO YOU SMELL PAVEMENT BURNING?


Well, I dood it! 2 weeks and 5 days after my 2nd knee joint replacement surgery I rode my tadpole trike on the trail today. I wasn’t exactly burning up the asphalt, but it was good to be out riding. I had to pedal with my heels on the pedals as it was too painful to place my feet normally. I just hope I don’t go thru another session of several days of muscle soreness after riding today. I only rode about 2  1/2 miles and I spent most of it picking up tree limbs and tossing them off of the trail as we had rain and high wind last night which brought a lot of them down.

I wish I could ride my trike into the hospital and to the outpatient rehab room to show the staff there my therapy machine. Everybody is amazed at how well and fast I am progressing. I was walking without a walker one week after surgery. After the staples were taken out of the incision (10 days post surgery) they had me on the recumbent exercise bike and I was able to pedal it normally immediately. With the first knee joint replacement surgery on the other leg I had to take about 6 minutes of rotating the crankset back and forth before I was able to pedal it clear around in full revolution. So things seem to be going better with this 2nd surgery than the first one and everybody thought the first one went pretty well. I give thanks and acknowledgement to the fast healing power of God. I know I have a lot of people around the world who are praying for me. I thank each and every one of them.

Nope, I am not exactly burning up the pavement so I doubt if you smell anything like burning rubber. But hey, this “bionic triker” is  working on …

KEEPING ON TRIKIN’

and I am hopeful that eventually I can come close

setting my tires on fire riding on that asphalt 🙂

(that might be a pipe dream for someone nearly 70 years old)

update: I did not have any soreness after riding so that is good. I sure wish I had the crankarm shorteners so I can change the pedal position. The crankarms on the stationary recumbent exercise bike in rehab has the crankarms set at their shortest setting and I can pedal it fine. I did so today and got up to 100 rpm a couple of times which BTW was about 80 watts of power being used by my body. Most of the time though I pedaled at about 50 rpm. I really enjoy riding the recumbent bike, but they won’t let me ride it very long as they want to get onto the medieval torture they get paid for. 🙂

BACK IN THE SADDLE AGAIN … OH YEAH!


Just a quick note … I just arrived back home after my first (successful) ride on my tadpole trike after knee joint replacement surgery. I rode on a local trail. I only rode 3 miles on this initial ride, but that was enough for now. It sure felt good to be back out riding. I hope to be able to get back out a few other times to ride some more before my next surgery which is just a week away. Anyway, all went well. I didn’t have any problem pedaling. My new knee joint did fine. My old worn out one grumbled as usual as I rode along. Another week and it’s grumbling days should come to an end. 🙂

Later that day my leg muscles in both legs were hurting and as bedtime came on I was really feeling sore. So I took some pain medication and rubbed my legs with a muscle rub product. I was able to sleep pretty good and feel better the next morning. As much as I was looking forward to going back out riding the very next day I think it would be wise if I forgo it and allow the leg muscles to further recover. Anyway, it sure was great to be “back in the saddle again”. 😉

IMPROVISING IN ORDER TO PEDAL AFTER KNEE JOINT REPLACEMENT


recumbent-bike-on-indoor-trainer

It may not be a tadpole trike, but it is a recumbent and for now I am using it as part of my “rehab” after total knee joint replacement. It is said that pedaling is one of the very best things one can do for recovering from total knee joint replacement. However, just getting on and off of it is a bit challenging … getting my leg up and over the frame … more so than pedaling it. I am managing it though. Once I have myself straddling the frame I am “in like Flint”.  That being said, in order to pedal I need to place my heel of my foot on the pedal so that I am moving my knee thru a smaller circle. I am slowly inching my foot backwards on the pedal as I spend time pedaling, but I only have to move it a short distance before I start “feeling” the discomfort it brings on.

The recumbent stationary bike in the  rehab facility where I go is set up with the crank arms quite short and I can spin them easily … even at 100 rpm cadence. I usually only ride my tadpole trike at about 60 rpm. I really need the crankarm shorteners, but alas, my wife says no as she doesn’t want me to spend the money right now. So I am improvising by placing my heel on the pedal. Of course, when I get the other knee joint replaced in two weeks without the crankarm shorteners I will have to place both heels on the pedals. BTW, one might think that pedaling with one foot properly placed with the ball of the foot on the pedal while the other foot has the heel on the pedal would be awkward and weird, but actually it is not a problem at all. It feels rather normal and natural to me. Of course, I would much prefer to pedal with both of my feet positioned normally.

heel-on-pedal-2

Hmmm, maybe I can sell something to get the money to buy the crankarm shorteners. They would be the “cat’s meow”. (For those who don’t understand that term here is a definition/explanation: “The cat’s meow” is an expression referring to something that is considered outstanding.”) I am not a fan of pedaling with my heels, but a guy’s gotta do what a guy’s gotta do.

short-crankarms-2

Yep, you are looking at the cat’s meow!

While others …  KEEP ON TRIKIN’  I just want to … KEEP ON PEDALIN’ … until I can join you.  🙂

10/28/2016 Update: I have been able to slowly work at sliding my foot back on the pedal and continue to pedal until I was able to place my foot the same as my other foot. However, every time I get on the bike I have to start all over with my heel on the pedal. At least this progress is encouraging even if it doesn’t last at this point in time. BTW, I am now able to get on and off of the bike much easier that I could at first.

PEDALING WITH KNEE PAIN


As many of you know I am in the slow painful process of recovering from total knee joint replacement. I am 4 weeks post surgery as I type this. All in all I am doing very good. I was walking without a walker in just 2 weeks time. I was driving motor vehicles in 3 weeks time. One thing I have been aware of and have even written about before is the use of shorter crankarms. One of the options to this is crankarm shorteners which bolt onto your existing crankarms. They make really good sense to me as they offer various length settings. With this you can change from one setting to another as needed and as your range of motion improves. And if you ever get back to where you no longer need them you simply uninstall them and go back to your original crankarms.

I am currently going thru rehab therapy and sometimes ride a stationary recumbent exercise bike. The rehab facility has two of these bikes, but I can only ride one of them. I looked at both of them and noticed that the difference is the length of the crankarms. The one I can ride has adjustable crankarms and it is setup with shortest available length. I pedaled it yesterday at 100 rpm for a short time. It felt really good to pedal it. Interestingly the physical therapists told me that very rarely can any knee joint replacement patient ride the other bike.

So anyway I plan on buying a set of crankarm shorteners to help me pedal. Hey, if you have knee joint issues and limited range of motion using shorter crankarms might be “just what the doctor ordered” for you. They are not cheap however. I was surprised and disappointed when I looked them up online. The best price I was able to find was about $115 with shipping thru Amazon. They are a different brand than the ones in this video. (I have noticed that the prices seem to change almost daily. The best deals I have found are usually on Ebay.) I had not yet come across these Ortho Pedals which sell for $89 each or $149 per set. Most of the ones I found were far more expensive … $130 and up. Ortho Pedal’s FAQ. Ortho Pedal’s warranty.

BTW, my second knee joint replacement is scheduled for Nov. 10th … just two weeks away. Oh boy! I am hoping to be burning up the asphalt come next spring.  Don’t get in my way! 🙂

FIRST ATTEMPT AT RIDING MY TRIKE SINCE KNEE JOINT REPLACEMENT


my-right-leg-incision-reduced

As some of you know I recently underwent total knee joint replacement. That, of course, means that I haven’t been doing any riding. Naturally I really miss it and am anxious to resume riding ASAP. My doctor had told me I ‘might’ be able to ride by 3 weeks post surgery. It has been 2 and a half weeks thus far. Well, I decided to try it. After all I rode the recumbent exercise bike in outpatient rehab last Friday and did ok with that. So this afternoon I decided to give it a go. My wife had gone to work so there was no one here to try to stop me. 🙂 I got my trike out and got it all ready to ride (lights turned on and safety flags in place). My main concern was getting back up out of the seat as I expected that to be problematic. It turned out that should have been the least of my concerns. Sitting down onto the seat was more challenging than I thought it would be, but I made it ok. It was a bit challenging to get my recovering leg into position and my foot resting properly on the pedal, but again I accomplished it and was “ready to go”. As things turned out what I expected to probably be the easiest part of all this turned out to be the most difficult … pedaling. I took off rolling down the driveway toward the street and as I made my first revolution of the crankset and started bringing my new knee joint back toward me I quickly discovered that it caused excruciating pain.

knee-pain

(No, this is not a picture of my knee.)

Normally with the heel slings I use I am able to lift my feet off of the pedals easily and quickly, but with my bum leg I could not do so. The pain just continued. Finally I got my foot off of the pedal and because of all the pain and weakness in the knee joint area I could not hold my foot up off of the ground like I normally can so my shoe made contact with the ground as the trike was still rolling (I did not want to stop in the middle of the street).

leg-suck-illustration

That resulted in more pain and I nearly experienced “leg suck“. I somehow managed to avoid that and made it over to the opposite side of the street by the curb where I sat for a few minutes trying to recover. Not knowing how I was going to do trying to get up out of the seat I was concerned that I might have to sit there until I can flag down some help from a passerby. Fortunately when I made the attempt to get up out of the seat I found it to be extremely easy. Upon getting up I started walking my trike back over across the street and up the driveway. I put my trike away and called it quits … realizing that I am not ready for “prime time”. I think the seat vs. pedal height position comes into play here. I think I could do much better pedaling in a traditional riding position such as I had when I rode the recumbent exercise bike in rehab last Friday. It looks like I am going to have to get the 2 wheel recumbent bike out to ride for now as the riding position is quite similar to the exercise bike in rehab. Although it hurt like crazy it probably did me good stretching in bending like that. The outside of my knee joint has healed up nicely and looks pretty good, but it is another story internally. The knee joint remains inflamed, tight, stiff and very sore. It is still generating a lot of heat. And to think that in 3 and a half weeks I am going to have the other knee joint replaced. I don’t think I will be doing much trike riding until next Spring.

chuck-the-stickman

(No, this is not a picture of me. That is my trike in the background though. The picture is of a friend who walked the local trails for many many years until he had to give it up recently for health reasons.)

At least now I will hopefully be able to walk on the trails thru the winter months. That is something I haven’t been able to do for many many years and I really miss it. Anyway, as loud as I must have yelled today I figured you might have heard me. 🙂  For those of you who can …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

and I will join you when I can

TADPOLE TRIKES CAN PROVIDE A 2ND CHANCE


We hear/read the testimonies nearly everyday … how a tadpole trike has literally transformed lives. Many have had various debilitating injuries and medical/physical issues arise which have greatly taken away from their former vibrant lives including the ability to safely ride a bicycle. Yes, tadpole trikes can and often do make the difference. People experience a second chance. They have a …

new lease on life

One well known triker is Catherine Brubaker. From her YouTube video description:

“Catherine Brubaker is a fighter. After suffering Traumatic Brain Injury (twice) she has come back and is a real inspiration to everyone she meets. Now she is embarking on a real challenge- a cross country ride on her recumbent trike from Washington state to Key West. She’s joining others on the ride and needs your help to make this dream happen.”

Catherine's 5390 mile ride to Florida.jpg

Of course, this is past history now. She completed the epic ride spoken of in the video and is still riding her trike and fighting the good fight. Go Cat, go!

As I understand it from watching the next video below both she and Dan (mentioned below) made this ride together from Washington to Florida.

Here is another video, a newer one, which features both Catherine and Dan Zimmerman. Dan suffered a stroke. They are currently planning another ride … from Washington to Massachusetts, a distance of 3814 miles. She and Dan are will be riding thru 15 states on this next journey together starting in June 2016. It is called “Sea to Sea Tour”.

Dan Zimmerman & Catherine Brubaker

sea to sea tour map

Perhaps if you live somewhere along their planned route you can come out and show your support when they are near you. Perhaps you can ride along with them for part of their journey (assuming that’s okay with them). Check out the planned route and schedule HERE. (They will coming to within about 40 miles from me. I hope I will be able to go there and see them.) You can read more about Catherine and what she is about HERE.

HERE is Catherine’s Facebook page where you can follow her as she pedals away. Catherine says “I gained hope through riding my trike”.  And Dan has the same testimony.

And you can read more about Dan’s life and cause HERE. You can also make financial donations to help their cause on these websites. Catherine’s GoFundMe

donate today

Yes, tadpole trikes can provide hope and a means of a new lease on life. May we all …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

PARAPLEGIC RIDES A TADPOLE TRIKE


paraplegic riding tadpole trike

Here is an interesting video of a person who is a paraplegic. Thru the aid of computer programmed nerve stimulation implants he is able to pedal a tadpole trike. Unfortunately I am unable to show the video here. In order to view it you will have to CLICK HERE and watch it on another website. The video should appear and start playing automatically.

It is neat to see what modern technology is able to accomplish. May those who are stricken with such physical problems continue to be aided so that they too can …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

ROLF GARTHUS INTERVIEW


Here is a video with Gary Solomon of the Laidback Bike Report interviewing Rolf Garthus. Rolf and his wife, Barb, are the owners of the Hostel Shoppe  in Stevens Point, Wisconsin. Hostel Shoppe is reported to be possibly the largest recumbent sales business in the U.S. The Hostel Shoppe also hosts the annual Midwest Recumbent Rally. I really enjoyed listening to him tell about how and why he got into recumbents and especially tadpole trikes. He shares about how the Hostel Shoppe business was started and its history. And he shares about several other things of interest to those who have an interest in tadpole trikes. Rolf reports that they sell 3 to 4 more recumbent trikes than they do recumbent bikes. I have heard this before from other sources.

Rolf Garthus in store

Rolf is in his 70s now which has brought on some physical changes and limitations as aging does for most of us. Never the less he is still actively riding and attests to the comfort and joy of riding a tadpole trike.

Rolf, Barb, and their employees are helping to get multitudes into recumbents. I am glad to see it. Let’s all …

KEEP ON TRIKIN’

RIDING WITH LARRY -A STORY OF PARKINSONS


Here is a powerful story of a man stricken with Parkinson’s Disease  who hasn’t given up. His story is very inspoiring. Thanks to his tadpole trike he has been able to live a much more normal life than he would have if he gave in to the disease.

http://ridewithlarrymovie.com/

SINGLE HAND CONTROLS, SINGLE FOOT PROPULSION


Some people have need of single hand controls and/or single foot propulsion on a tadpole trike. These are available and equipped with them cyclists can ride, get exercise and enjoy the experience. Here is a video showing one such person …

There are dealers who offer specialized components and outfitting of trikes for customers who need such. HERE is one of them. Adaptive controls can be ordered thru and fitted by ICE trikes. And I am sure that the infamous Utah Trikes would gladly outfit a trike for anyone needing special controls and components.

THERATRYKE, A SPECIAL PURPOSE TRIKE


TheraTryke logo

TheraTryke combines upper and lower body exercise for paraplegics. Students at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan have designed and prototyped a device they’re calling the TheraTryke. TheraTryke combines upper and lower body exercise for paraplegics.

TheraTryke is not to be confused with TheraTrike which is a company specializes in designing and manufacturing therapeutic tricycles and accessories for children with cerebral palsy and similar special needs.

TheraTrykeThe objective of this project is to design and build a therapeutic trike for those with little to no use in their legs. The trike will have the capability of pumping the legs via energy transferred from hand pedaling. This device will have therapeutic benefits that no other outdoor trike on the market currently has.

Aimed at those with MS, spinal cord injuries, or complete paraplegics, it lets riders use their hands, feet or a combination of both together to propel themselves forward. Theratryke’s design diverts about a third of the pedaling power to moving the legs. Each brake lever controls both brakes. Theratryke uses a Shimano Nexus 7 gearing system that enables continuous gearless ratio changes. The trike will be trialed at a local hospital before they move forward with any manufacturing and marketing. Similar combo-pedal bikes for able-bodied riders include the Varibike and the Raxibo.

They have a Facebook page, but no website that I can find.

TheraTryke 2

There doesn’t seem to be a lot of information on this trike at this time. HERE is the final report of the designers/developers.

TheraTryke 3

There are several articles to be found online. HERE is one of them.

TheraTryke 4

TheraTryke 5

TheraTryke 8

TheraTryke 7

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